为什么幻腾PIXEL系列墙面开关采用火零接线?

如果你曾经关注过遥控墙面开关或智能墙面开关,那么第一个可能让你搞不清楚的概念就是“单火”和“火零”接法(为了和“单火”押韵,也常将后者称为“零火”)。我试着用简单的概念讲述两者的区别,以及为什么火零接法可以避免安全隐患。阅读本文,需要你回忆一下初中物理知识。

PIXEL Classic什么是火线和零线,灯为什么会亮?

两孔的电源插座里的两根线,就是火线和零线。左边是零线,不带电,人摸到也没有大问题;右边是火线,带电的,不小心摸到了就呵呵了。(不要尝试摸零线,因为有些喝醉了的电工有可能把你家电路火零完全接反了。)

当用电器同时接入火线和零线时,就会形成电流,用电器才能正常工作。图中是一个简单的开关、灯泡的电路。当开关断开时,灯泡实际只连接了一条线,没有电流,灯不会亮;当开关闭合时,电流流过灯泡,电灯发光。

普通开关

什么是智能开关的单火、火零接法?

正如上面的图所示,一个传统的开关,利用弹簧和机械结构控制火线的通断,一进一出两根线实际都是火线,这种接法就是“单火接法”。

对于遥控或智能开关,内部有一套精密的控制电路,取代了手动操作的机械结构,来控制线路的通断。但无论开关是通是断,这套控制电路本身都需要电源,以保证持续不断的工作。

如何给控制电路供电?最直接的方法:给它接上电源——火线和零线。既然火线已经接到开关里了,那么只要再接上零线,就万事大吉了。这种接法就是火零接法。

2
火零电子开关共接3根线:火线进,火线出,零线。

但是问题来了。火零接法需要多接一根线,没法兼容传统的机械开关。为了兼容,人们设计出了一种“单火取电”的方式,使得只接进、出两根火线,还能保持控制电路持续工作。兼容性好了,但更多问题随之而来。

6
单火电子开关和传统开关接法相同,只需2根线:火线进、火线出

 

为什么说单火接法的智能开关可能有安全隐患?

预备知识点1:电路消耗的电功率,是电路两端的电压和流过它的电流的乘积。

预备知识点2:串联电路中,各处的电流是相等的。(想象水流,一条河,只要没有枝杈,上下游各处单位时间流过的水量一定一样多。)

单火开关只接进、出火线,不接零线,怎么能保证控制电路持续工作呢?分两种情况:

开关闭合导通时,相同的电流同时流过开关和灯具,假设电流是0.1A。这时,开关“劫持”一部分电压,比如10V,留给灯具的电压剩下220-10=210V。对灯具来讲,电压并没有降低太多,仍然能正常工作;对开关来讲,这救命的10V带给它的电能就是10V×0.1A=1W,足够其控制电路工作。

开关断开时,理应没有电流通过灯具。这时,开关偷偷漏过微弱的电流流经灯具,例如0.0001A,即0.1mA. 如此微弱的电流,灯不能点亮,大部分的电压分在开关两端,接近220V。因此开关的耗能是220V×0.0001A=0.022W,虽然很小,也能勉强维持生计。

3
单火开关导通时(左图),开关上分得部分电压,驱动控制电路;断开时(右图),灯具流过微小的漏电流

综上所述,单火开关求生的秘诀就是:通路时克扣小额电压“收买路钱”,断路时漏过微弱电流“收受贿赂”。那么单火开关的“问题”也就比较明确了:无论通断,都不彻底。

实际应用中,断路时漏电流带来的问题更加严重。举两个例子:

1. 节能灯关灯时闪烁:

假设连接的灯具是功率较小的节能灯或LED灯具。这类灯具的驱动电路初级通常带有一个大电容,用于将交流电转为平滑的直流电。关灯时,如果开关漏过微小电流,就会给这个电容充电。电容电压逐渐升高,一旦达到后续电路启动的电压,就会瞬间将储存的能量释放到后续电路,灯具就会闪一下,然后电容重新充电,准备下一次闪灯。

灯具功率越小,点亮后续电路需要的能量越少,灯闪的就越明显,越频繁。因此,单火开关通常要求灯具功率必须够大,闪烁才不明显,不会察觉。

2. 触电危险:

如果灯具坏了需要更换,这时老灯具卸下来,线路完全断了,漏电流没处漏,单火开关就不工作了。不过这时如果你装新灯时恰好碰到了电极,那么呵呵,你的身体就提供了漏电流的通道。你就可以体验麻酥酥的快感了。

更危险的是,单火开关里面也有个大电容,刚刚开始工作时需要比较大的漏电流,尽快给它充电。这时的电流远远大于了人体能承受的安全值。

5
即使单火电子开关处于关闭状态,损坏或断路的灯具两端,仍有触电危险。

 

事实上,根据墙面开关的国家标准:GB 16915.1-2014中,表15对于断开时绝缘性的要求,在2000V或1250V电压下,仍应该保证至少2兆欧的绝缘电阻。市面上大多数单火智能开关,根本无法在断开时承受如此的高压,更无从完成这个测试。

电器强度截图
摘自墙面开关的通用国家标准GB 16915.1-2014,表15

火零接法解决了这些问题吗?

是的。虽然以技术的发展速度,我们不能说火零是唯一的解法,但它是目前最靠谱的一种解法。

当开关闭合时,灯具与控制电路并联,两者的供电是彼此独立互不影响的。当开关断开时,控制电路需要的微弱电流直接流经火线和零线,不流经灯具。灯具完全与火线断开。

4
控制电路与灯具独立。闭合时,灯具完全供电;断开时,灯具完全断路,不管灯具是否安装,是否损坏。

只剩最后一个问题,控制部分一直工作,会不会太费电?如果你真的担心费电,建议你夏天把空调调高一度,冬天把暖气降低一度。因为空调少启动1小时,足够一个智能开关工作半年。

 

 

“为什么幻腾PIXEL系列墙面开关采用火零接线?”的0个回复

  1. auto bluebook

    Best alaska travel books * Video
    Best alaska travel books Best alaska travel books Why choose Alaska Tour & Travel? 1. We are locally owned and operated based in Anchorage Alaska. 2. Our small group of Alaskan partners have well over a century of combined experience in the Alaska tourism industry. 3. Since 1995 we have helped over 250,000 visitors plan their perfect Alaska vacation. 4. We have an A+ rating with the Better Business Bureau of Alaska, and we have been a member for more than a decade. 5. We have earned a five star rating on Trip Advisor, and well as their annual Certificate …
    The post Best alaska travel books * Video appeared first on Kitchen .

    Georgia Business
    BONUS 100 FREE DOFOLLOW Links SITE

    http://stompboxes.co.uk/forum/memberlist.php?mode=viewprofile&u=13997
    http://wpristav.at.ua/index/8-1952
    http://vbeinfo.net/boards/topic/5401/credit-1-login
    http://wzjr.beiww.com/home.php?mod=space&uid=945211&do=profile&from=space
    http://jimsonefeld.com/promo/details/AUTOnub/

    http://divaswithacause.org/2013/08/08/03-standard-blog-post-with-image/?unapproved=238706&moderation-hash=d1e3b94746277ab12c434cd0e5cbee1d#comment-238706
    http://praxisofamerica.com/producto/buzo-de-ninja-paciente/?unapproved=41913&moderation-hash=283cd9bdb74e30bc7aa3f4c08861cb2e#comment-41913
    http://newintheusa.com/2017/04/hello-world/?unapproved=10210&moderation-hash=1580364354c6cef0682486c798672ee0#comment-10210
    http://beta.binus.ac.id/representatives-dki-jakarta/?unapproved=49213&moderation-hash=7622e8b5f185420aae8b75d4da73a28b#comment-49213
    http://www.azworldnews.com/nba-star-game-2018-team-lebron-defeats-team-stephen/?unapproved=6383&moderation-hash=43b7bc1a96e7524bc3f3df2dc900c06c#comment-6383
    http://per4madoxa.org/hello-world/?unapproved=10841&moderation-hash=58f8e135bfc59c5e90226db52aee1e16#comment-10841
    https://timecapsulemagazines.com/product/dirt-bike-magazine-january-1981/?unapproved=4935&moderation-hash=ac0a4ba000c7df3510a11d76baaea0bb#comment-4935
    http://www.yalana1kala.org/2015/05/yalanlarla-yasamak/?unapproved=25617&moderation-hash=e74309bde989da622a47004eb1dd7466#comment-25617
    https://98soft.net/small-businesses-can-benefit-using-social-media/?unapproved=3563&moderation-hash=921935cbe338c0a0806334637f9a3333#comment-3563
    http://hoisin-sauce.com/?unapproved=2665&moderation-hash=4d8c132dbe2dca0e323735730c5c5ec1#comment-2665
    http://hautegreyfox.com/dressed-to-a-t/?unapproved=20577&moderation-hash=63253302fd95af918de4218bfef71872#comment-20577
    http://missworldcanada.net/miss-world-canada-blogs-in-every-province/?unapproved=34237&moderation-hash=d0faf3945a1fb20938f164c2a2041de0#comment-34237
    http://fitnessapps24.de/?unapproved=24007&moderation-hash=c2654d30ab108034c3f3314977525a60#comment-24007
    http://www.gandggroup.com/index.php/2015/07/13/service-1-2/?unapproved=10053&moderation-hash=629bc9da0cf9046847fd1f38c4c16841#comment-10053
    http://www.asapholdings.com/asap-hotel-management-acquires-li-ming-hotel/?unapproved=24607&moderation-hash=2ddf9786e276095008af96a6c05a3e1d#comment-24607
    https://libbabray.com/miles-and-miles-of-no-mans-land/?unapproved=58180&moderation-hash=cc321c3bcd2049f4122416a2c95aba08#comment-58180
    http://geoswap.com/terms-of-service/?unapproved=45697&moderation-hash=fce91ed1883aae60a6df8d0d88f40e62#comment-45697
    http://www.palkanlaskenta.org/2010/07/31/hello-world/?unapproved=18016&moderation-hash=f15c1ab149b296fb15159281cbd66b7e#comment-18016
    https://chihealth.co/restricted-products/?unapproved=5085&moderation-hash=a6aa1be4761724cce7068460d566baa5#comment-5085
    http://genengaisyoku.com/2/?unapproved=8492&moderation-hash=f1b330d859c7490a7b78375e7c2841db#comment-8492
    http://lifestyle-adventures.com/eine-woche-jamaika-erholung-und-adventures/?unapproved=30293&moderation-hash=8c44565295a926da46123c835e4de578#comment-30293
    http://www.robinseidman.com/blog/?unapproved=87357&moderation-hash=64d6804520a9cfd9961ab791956036d1#comment-87357
    http://hargamitsubishipromo.com/Mobil/xpander/?unapproved=15018&moderation-hash=e2599a8b1b0aff43c95de63a43465a98#comment-15018
    http://jackthecat.ca/cat/2015/11/22/hello-world/?unapproved=17928&moderation-hash=1321b9086debaa925e68159a9c0e9053#comment-17928
    https://starrcards.com/retro-75-series-custom-basketball-cards/?unapproved=9166&moderation-hash=3d6f7eec64272172a9e89f654c7e8fcb#comment-9166
    http://jillianverneblog.com/bts-book-reviews-magazine-features-masterpiece/?unapproved=29367&moderation-hash=fe9f6845493c3b830f1a373bbe510b3a#comment-29367
    http://www.investimenti-sicuri.net/blog/investire-diamanti-rendimento/?unapproved=3919&moderation-hash=a30c836ec8b5600941f9ac38f898ea3f#comment-3919
    http://www.1stclassite.com/potential-capital-gain-at-the-skywoods/?unapproved=5232&moderation-hash=67ad83d5379753fbdec6b08c23d82074#comment-5232
    http://www.nickwolny.com/emailguideblog/?unapproved=7863&moderation-hash=56d4c906ceaf143eb86113b09b0dfb62#comment-7863
    http://www.periodicovanguardia.mx/archivos/obregon-entre-las-diez-ciudades-mas-habitables-de-mexico/#comment-11964
    http://www.flyourflag.ca/2016/09/30/top-10-best-airports-world/?unapproved=4558&moderation-hash=3d2ceb8b3520a6fb727ecc7c0f02d1d2#comment-4558
    http://asprojeto.com/index.php/2016/03/31/hello-world/?unapproved=4070&moderation-hash=dccda7dd6f0488920f6b7e06ef146cf6#comment-4070
    http://theoreticallyyours.com/2014/07/the-a-b-cs/?unapproved=30974&moderation-hash=ec53cba6e3060853a908367e5b6975ce#comment-30974
    http://bowtiefamilyhelpers.com/buying-selling-homes-dallas/?unapproved=22335&moderation-hash=8bab5210831a008f4b051c1e9808607b#comment-22335
    http://uffteatro.com/2016/03/15/primera-entrada/?unapproved=18670&moderation-hash=01d63f68392e16817ab359c43e57f4d6#comment-18670
    http://www.paulchandler.blog/2017-agm/?unapproved=2949&moderation-hash=199be9a82bc2de7ad43a4c69f822eb70#comment-2949
    http://www.swoopevents.com/looking-back-april-supper-friends/?unapproved=96234&moderation-hash=99edf1a1acc59884b29effd25260ae46#comment-96234
    http://www.bikrammann.com/csv-to-excel-xlsx-converter-python-xlsxwriter/?unapproved=4655&moderation-hash=8b2d340fe055ce48f152dd7cb1a89c9d#comment-4655
    http://trinayani.org/on-deafness/?unapproved=45519&moderation-hash=4a6778865452a11d7e725596b989be7a#comment-45519
    http://anadventure.us/2016/06/16/czeching-out-prague/?unapproved=9894&moderation-hash=eeb40bc11ef6027518729c75a0366e8e#comment-9894
    https://byeaerospace.com/eaa-airventure-2018-radio-interview-with-george-bye/?unapproved=4065&moderation-hash=815daa366649ad827fd8e33b1caaf041#comment-4065
    http://www.trurocityswimclub.com/2018/12/04/plymouth-leander-christmas-gala-2018/#comment-4710
    http://hssjapan.org/upcoming-events/tokyo-yogathon-2015/?unapproved=8360&moderation-hash=c29c01171577727258543a089a765135#comment-8360
    https://www.starteachastronomy.com/mesopotamian.html?unapproved=5193&moderation-hash=9c9acaca847723433f2fbcb8f2931a42
    http://netenthugebonus.com/netent-20-no-deposit-free-spins/?unapproved=7236&moderation-hash=a704bd0b6e6511c974590b1aded63ccd#comment-7236
    https://maggiescrochetblog.com/crochet-next-steps-half-double-crochet/?unapproved=138252&moderation-hash=2ce3191af66cba215868c76dd35e4abb#comment-138252
    http://tristatebrickandtile.com/construction-technology-books/?unapproved=4858&moderation-hash=ac53e0b97de1905c7377ae218bc766ee#comment-4858
    https://webseccorp.com/product/uphil/?unapproved=4360&moderation-hash=0dba97fe70947c0ee1cbcc1ae0c728da#comment-4360
    http://pragmatka.pl/powrot-do-formy-po-ciazy/?unapproved=13040&moderation-hash=e1d5d9db52174f060f350a272e388b5b#comment-13040
    http://londradan.london/2018/06/14/to-talk-about-death-at-a-cafe/?unapproved=2732&moderation-hash=7ad74b2da788f07d060dc103d23d078f#comment-2732
    https://sailingcostarica.com/costa-rican-rodeos-cowboys-drunks-bulls/?unapproved=14628&moderation-hash=6fc559532451dd7559be08e9efbf3ce6#comment-14628
    http://ezable.info/?unapproved=1282&moderation-hash=f1dc1077022dbc17256ac47f49af2b8b#comment-1282
    https://ellislakeretreat.com/project/guest-cabin-living-area/?unapproved=19365&moderation-hash=67f80df50cc90b2bc99abcdc20a57ff4#comment-19365
    http://shanefilanireland.org/how-to-be-a-professional-singer/?unapproved=258721&moderation-hash=f4c8a92023a18f784e86be44019e9d41#comment-258721
    http://www.sanchezdelara.com/es/una-ley-cuatro-juristas-y-tres-posturas/?unapproved=3759&moderation-hash=7ef0b13b052fbac88d46a7ceb4144398#comment-3759
    http://signthedec.com/supporters/?unapproved=19068&moderation-hash=7dbc9749598457e8d33620804a786215#comment-19068
    https://www.zhaobiaoxx.com/plus/guestbook.php
    https://babyzinseoul.com/baekjeong-bbq-aka-678-korean-bbq-korean-bbq/?unapproved=10611&moderation-hash=520a329d9c8757c55c66435b55bebc4b#comment-10611
    https://jdius.com/video/?unapproved=782&moderation-hash=738278f675ba465413972399c6319a61#comment-782
    http://www.trabzondanhaber.net/aranan-beyaz-montlu-bombaci-kacmamis-2450.html?unapproved=7937&moderation-hash=7501c07ff8bffe856c12a31c6d19868e#comment-7937
    http://www.calpre.com/2016/09/23/home-loans/?unapproved=1485&moderation-hash=54b21002a8b5d75ed9818c5f129ef22d#comment-1485
    http://www.nutridporadna.cz/2016/02/21/sacharidy-jist-ci-nejist/?unapproved=34515&moderation-hash=4536322516ce69ec514a824bf5e6dbbf#comment-34515
    https://bez-sna.ru/narushenie-rezhima-sna/?unapproved=16017&moderation-hash=0133efb46ba647717e306f14830e26c4#comment-16017
    http://jtduoff.fr/dessinateur-rousso-in-england/?unapproved=5061&moderation-hash=b89344d1422189dc4c5ad9a988d20102#comment-5061
    https://ohheyblog.com/french-alps-being-4000-meters-in-the-air/?unapproved=3504&moderation-hash=02317a0ed6fe50035ff5ed66c41a3394#comment-3504
    https://taiti-sev.ru/otzyivyi/?unapproved=8130&moderation-hash=554631fcdb775ad6ad3453fb150d76c2#comment-8130
    http://vomandernstern.de/hello-world/?unapproved=1119&moderation-hash=443b14c84ba079a4fd78816e3e138de4#comment-1119
    https://laurascouture.com/2017/07/welcome-to-our-blog/?unapproved=25536&moderation-hash=4222120d9281f73b60b971c1a8b0acd9#comment-25536
    http://annieschrank.com/photo-set/ethiopia5/?unapproved=324360&moderation-hash=328c4c532f797b82b887dc9268fd40bd#comment-324360
    http://herbconsults.com/?p=1&unapproved=9079&moderation-hash=ccab20527987a9ff529a8fc67ea7bf6d#comment-9079
    http://consultusthrive.com/benefits-of-offshore-company-incorporation-in-2019/?unapproved=2112&moderation-hash=b932152a83e466d4a993a432be027b0c#comment-2112
    http://no.scanditrader.com/anmeldelse/etx-capital/?unapproved=12867&moderation-hash=f0638449e6bedb2fc0dd7b0df451dbe6#comment-12867
    http://dianevsd.com/coming-soon/?unapproved=5909&moderation-hash=d4aba60b3cdd07172cc6a2f5d9cfc90b#comment-5909
    http://www.willcompany.biz/jewelry-care-tips/?unapproved=10369&moderation-hash=ff4bc693bca18511c261ba9b28763beb#comment-10369
    http://philosophit.com/blog/?unapproved=52091&moderation-hash=c36573cd785c2f6f5cef66edc236b215#comment-52091
    http://oldhomeplacemv.com/around-the-place/?unapproved=49218&moderation-hash=07aeb3df1111abc3a02715ec477d15cc#comment-49218
    http://midsummerfestival.co.uk/hello-world/?unapproved=16396&moderation-hash=3b4bc754004d4a96503baeafb277d019#comment-16396
    http://bjpconsult.net/2015/05/04/hello-world/?unapproved=21951&moderation-hash=299ede94b4c5395664d54596b790ea75#comment-21951
    https://marco-elling.de/villa-jordaan-haus-rothenberge/?unapproved=4377&moderation-hash=a4c02ebb283ea1e03fd9f5291699b098#comment-4377
    https://wallwalker.net/general/post-format-gallery/?unapproved=1471&moderation-hash=1342fff4c1f9857c572a5f7908e96caf#comment-1471
    https://www.gezginstar.com/dolomit-daglari-gezi-rehberi/?unapproved=3612&moderation-hash=8ebdbe55c83f51f84539a731ec7cc81c#comment-3612
    http://bestofbrightonmi.com/hello-world/?unapproved=11484&moderation-hash=328b2030e17cf0d620724e89986a583a#comment-11484
    https://alteristic.org/green-dot-isnt-enough/?unapproved=5076&moderation-hash=0d81f83b7fc3cefc7dceaa841ede0ef8#comment-5076
    https://ebisu-chan.jp/information/2017/03/30/0036/?unapproved=4026&moderation-hash=e6fb42b35d2b3ccad7996edad90ae808#comment-4026
    http://kuchniaazjatycka.com/sajgonki-z-faszerowana-ryba/?unapproved=77091&moderation-hash=fad40e14a2398e27cc9d055c1d002532#comment-77091
    https://www.sealeggs.com.au/kitchen-splashback-prices-costs/?unapproved=1469&moderation-hash=1056367459759f584c89016332c2cd50#comment-1469
    http://eventhealthmanagement.com/hello-world/?unapproved=22557&moderation-hash=409615d64de8696bacd2b941b332acad#comment-22557
    http://www.gallery-lecicle.com/?unapproved=8669&moderation-hash=a1cf96fc6d67915be72371455b342a1f#comment-8669
    http://putriindahlestari.student.umm.ac.id/2016/08/12/tutorial-membuat-gaun/?unapproved=15187&moderation-hash=4dccfc2543f29eaf5298f0c4ad31edfc#comment-15187
    https://www.medicalpoint.co.uk/post-split-into-multiple-pages-post-parts/?unapproved=13614&moderation-hash=af7b398a8a4d58f6931fdeb61af332d1#comment-13614
    http://www.infieldclipboard.com/2017/09/08/internet-of-things-infographic/?unapproved=9393&moderation-hash=f474dcc3932f16e844e7d2851752f825#comment-9393
    http://thelinksindoorgolf.com/2015/06/hello-world/?unapproved=28072&moderation-hash=917a026250c775718da3fad04bcaa9b8#comment-28072
    http://forums.spammer.fun/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=37473
    http://workersdojo.com/7-keinoa-heinakuussa-toissa-jaksamiseen/?unapproved=28718&moderation-hash=4cf52f2b0698108123a03de150888205#comment-28718
    http://www.hatractief.be/2015/04/28/top-5-opruimtips/?unapproved=54852&moderation-hash=1277787da37b0930b34c04cf1f793775#comment-54852
    http://scottsdalemmj.com/get-cheap-mmj-cards-az/?unapproved=5670&moderation-hash=027b690d3cde9f7320fc71606c63f027#comment-5670
    http://www.poochpack.co.uk/treating-akita-dogs-people/?unapproved=10190&moderation-hash=3595dc77a0b497559845d69ae9c5a402#comment-10190
    http://www.cozumpetrol.com/izo-yag-enjektor-kalibrasyon-sivisi/?unapproved=26728&moderation-hash=4a789553d81202c5a600d86a667f4226#comment-26728
    http://cqn.be/shop/green-keys/?unapproved=969&moderation-hash=76461d64a5a335f0c688b11fc7440a28#comment-969
    http://blog.hardwarestore.com/how-to-replace-a-kitchen-sink-2013-01/?unapproved=19809&moderation-hash=872fefa1e2f03c524777a072ed2c316b#comment-19809

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注

在这输入验证码 : *

Reload Image